HTTPS Payload and C2 Redirectors

I’ve written rather extensively about the use of redirectors and how they can strengthen your red team assessments. Since my first post on the topic, the question I’ve received most frequently is about how to do the same thing with HTTPS traffic. In this post, I will detail different HTTPS redirection methods and when to use each. I’d like to give a shoutout to Joe Vest (@joevest) for building HTTPS command and control (C2) redirection into his cs2modrewrite tool and figuring out some of the required Apache configurations for such redirection. Dumb Pipe Redirection Redirectors can best be described as fitting into one of two categories: dumb pipe or filtering. As its name suggests, the “dumb pipe” redirectors... [Read More]

Cobalt Strike OPSEC Profiles

Penetration tests and red team assessments often require operators to work multiple potential attack paths or perform multiple checks concurrently. Cultivating these myriad paths is what often leads operators to success in achieving their objectives. However, this execution method can also lead to an operator making a simple mistake, like running a “known bad” action for which there is a trivial detection. I can say I personally have been in the heat of an attack path and accidentally run PowerShell in an environment with very heavy PowerShell monitoring. It happens. My coworker, Lee Christensen (@tifkin_), and I were recently discussing how to leverage automation to assist an operator in mundane tasks that can be neglected during such a test. Mundane tasks like maintaining strong... [Read More]

Designing Effective Covert Red Team Attack Infrastructure

Covert red team attack infrastructure is a topic I’ve covered many times before, but always only in part. I’ve wanted to write about the thought process behind the design process of attack infrastructure for a while. In October, I had the privilege of covering that very topic at ArcticCon in Minneapolis, a con by red teamers for red teamers. My talk, Building a Better Moat: Designing Effective Covert Red Team Attack Infrastructure, covered the what and the why of attack infrastructure, rather than focusing on the how. In this post, I will discuss attack infrastructure design considerations and expand upon some of the points I made in my talk. If you’d like to learn how to deploy red team attack infrastructure, please... [Read More]

F'Awk Yeah! Advanced sed and awk Usage (Parsing for Pentesters 3)

In a previous post, we (@Sw4mp_f0x and I) discussed the importance of data parsing skills for penetration testers and detailed the basics of how to get started with it. We covered a few tools, but only scraped the surface of what’s possible with two very powerful tools: awk and sed. As a refresher, AWK is a programming language for pattern scanning and processing. You run AWK commands with the awk tool. sed is a stream editor tool that is primarily used to restructure input by performing pattern substitutions. In this post, we will be covering more advanced uses for awk and sed to further refine your parsing skills and efficiency. Advanced awk Usage In our previous post, we covered how awk can... [Read More]

Randomized Malleable C2 Profiles Made Easy

Malleable Command and Control (C2) profiles provide red teamers and penetration testers with a wealth of options to modify how Cobalt Strike both appears on the wire and on the compromised host. Malleable C2 can be used to impersonate actual threat actors or normal web traffic. As with every advancement in offensive tradecraft, blue teams and defensive products are bound to implement static signature-based protections. In my opinion, a defender should use any resources available, including signature-based detections; however, they shouldn’t rely on any one defensive technique. As red teamers, it’s our job to exercise the blue team’s controls and processes and this is precisely what Malleable C2 profiles permit us to exercise. In this blog post, I’ll detail a script I... [Read More]